Temperature Regulation of the Human Body
The external heat transfer mechanisms are radiation, conduction and convection and evaporation of perspiration. The process is far more than the passive operation of these heat transfer mechanisms, however. The body takes a very active role in temperature regulation.
The temperature of the body is regulated by neural feedback mechanisms which operate primarily through the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus contains not only the control mechanisms, but also the key temperature sensors. Under control of these mechanisms, sweating begins almost precisely at a skin temperature of 37°C and increases rapidly as the skin temperature rises above this value. The heat production of the body under these conditions remains almost constant as the skin temperature rises. If the skin temperature drops below 37°C a variety of responses are initiated to conserve the heat in the body and to increase heat production. These include