Glutamine contributes to the regulation of acid-base balance in the kidney by producing ammonium. It serves as a source of cellular energy next to glucose. It provides nitrogen donation for many anabolic processes, including the synthesis of purines. It is a source for carbon donation, refilling the TCA cycle. It serves as a nontoxic transporter of ammonia in the blood circulation.
Glutamine plays a role in maintaining the normal integrity of the intestinal mucosa.
Glutamine is one of the few amino acids that can directly cross the blood-brain barrier.
Tillery, Enger and Ross